Chapter 7 is what most people think of when they think of bankruptcy. One of the main purposes of Chapter 7 is to discharge debts to give you a "fresh start."
Chapter 13 lets you catch up on mortgage, car, tax, or support payments over five years, as well as deal with credit cards, personal loans, medical bills, and all of your other debt.
Chapter 12 is for family farmers and aquaculture businesses. More than half of your debt needs to be from your farming or aquaculture business to qualify.
Brett Weiss wrote the book on Chapter 11 and lectures nationally on the new Small Business Reorganization Act. Restructuring business and large individual debt is what Chapter 11 is all about.
Brett Weiss, the Managing Member of The Weiss Law Group, talks about "The Six Chapters of Bankruptcy". (Chapter 9 applies to cities and municipalities, and Chapter 15 applies to international cases.)